Bee Variety Diversity
Away from 2009 to 2018, 192 bee range (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) got involved when you look at the Calanques Federal Playground thru one another on the internet and you will bowl trap collection. It belonged in https://hookupwebsites.org/spdate-review/ order to half dozen family and you can 38 genera. Megachilidae are among the extremely groups-rich relatives, with Apidae and you can Halictidae, having 53, forty two, and you will 43 groups, respectively. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 is largely the richest genus, which have 33 variety, whenever you are seven genera have been represented regarding only one types (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Table 1 [on the internet only] ). With the jackknife 1 and you will 2 spiders, this new bee species fullness is largely projected to-be ranging from ± nine.89 and you will ± . This new seen richness thus portrayed 71.step 3 so you can 79.6% of one’s projected bee fullness ( Dining table 2). This new Chao1 strategy projected brand new viewed fullness to find 76.8% of one’s prospective limit fullness ( Dining table dos). More numerous varieties is simply Apis mellifera L. (276 somebody), having Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and you may 168 individuals, respectively), and you will Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 some body). Sooner, 50 classes (26%) have been portrayed by only one private (singletons).
Environment Properties out of Bees
Concerning your environment functions regarding nesting means, i understood 59 unmarried bee types nesting a lot more than flooring, ninety five single bee diversity nesting below ground and 23 cleptoparasitic range, comparable to 30.seven, 47.nine, and you will several.0% of complete bee assortment richness, correspondingly. We thought of five individual kinds (bumble bees and you will honey bees-dos.1%). Ultimately, the new nesting choice off 14 assortment continue to be not familiar (7.3%- Supp Table the first step [on the web merely] ). Regarding your flowery diet plan regarding bee groups, we found that 105 designs (54.7%) foraged to the of several bush kinds (i.age., generalist assortment, polylectic) and 51 species (twenty six.5%) foraged on a single plant family unit members or even one/couples bush kinds (i.age., top-notch species, oligolectic). Toward left thirty-six bee range (18.8%), brand new flowery diet plan was not understood (e.g., having cleptoparasitic species). perhaps not, very generalist variety displayed a desires for just one otherwise several regarding plant families ( Supp Dining table step 1 [online merely] ). To your 44 singletons, 14 bee groups (28%) is specialist, and you may 9 bee varieties (18%) was basically cleptoparasitic ( Supp Table step 1 [on the internet merely] ).
A passionate IUCN condition are plentiful having 178 variety (excluding new classes houses and you will unfamiliar systems). One particular, 47 models try categorized just like the analysis without (DD-twenty-six.4%), 124 varieties were the very least alarmed (LC-69.6%), half dozen species is near threatened (NT-step three.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), plus one varieties is thought threatened (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Table 1 [on line only] ). About three oligolectic classes was in fact one of the eight endangered bee systems. An excellent. ovatula and you may C. albomaculatus was pro into Fabaceae, D. argentata is actually a specialist with the Caprifoliaceae.
Out-of 2009 so you can 2018, 38 version of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) was indeed trapped into the Calanques Federal Playground. It belonged so you can 24 genera ( Supp Desk 2 [on the web simply] ). By far the most abundant genera was indeed Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 individuals), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (14 anyone), and you may Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de– Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville into the Latreille, 1828 (13 someone), while 20 versions (53%) had been illustrated throughout the just one private ( Supp Dining table dos [on the web merely] ). The bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) had been illustrated of 20 variety, including five singletons (25%) ( Supp Desk step 3 [on the web only] ). The estimate away from complete range fullness away-of hover flies and you can bee flies is ranging from 83 and 97 groups making use of the jackknife 1 and you can dos indexes, correspondingly. For that reason, the fresh viewed fullness portrayed 59.8–69.9% of estimated hover fly and you will bee travel richness ( Table 2).